Archive for the ‘Culture’ Category

Tamil – Class: 5 / Teaching Tamil Through English

April 9, 2018

Class-5

Generally people ask a question, “Why should we learn Tamil?”  In my younger days I asked a similar question, “Why should I learn Sanskrit?” But I was forced to learn Sanskrit, being born as a Brahmin. In my native state of Tamil Nadu, India, Sanskrit is looked up on as a sign of Brahmanism and hence there was not much encouragement. Even in Schools, facility for learning this language was very minimal and insufficient. Hence I had to drop the option of learning this language at some stage. But now I regret I have not learnt a language which contains most of ancient Indian knowledge of Science, Philosophy and Religion. Tamil is also an equally ancient Indian language with a rich treasure of Literature, Science and Cultural History. It is a source of one of the ancient medical practice called Sidda System of Medicines, totally encoded in verses of mystical poetry. With the knowledge of Tamil as a classical language decaying all over, now it needs a learned interpreter to understand and use this system safely. In my younger days in my village, I have heard these verses being recited by our family Native-Physician (Nattu Marutthuvar – நாட்டு மருத்துவர்).  Luckily the present Indian Government is encouraging the knowledge of native Sciences and Technologies, and hence, facilities for study and practice of this system are taken up seriously.

When you know Tamil as a spoken language, it is only a small step to learn the same to read, write and teach the youngsters the great language of Tamil.

We have seen in the earlier 4 classes in this series, the Alphabets, pronunciations, a few words and a brief history of Tamil Language. Now let us proceed to CLASS – 5.

Let us now make a few simple sentence

1. Un(nudaiya) peyar enna? – En peyar Tara

உன்(னுடைய) பெயர் என்ன? – என்(னுடைய) பெயர் தாரா.

What is your Name? – My Name is Tara

2. Idhu yaar? – Idhu en(nudaiya) appa

இது யார்? – இது என்(னுடைய) அப்பா.

Who is this? – This is my father

3. Un amma engey? – En amma veetil irukkiraar

உன் அம்மா எங்கே? – என் அம்மா வீட்டில் இருக்கிறார்.

Where is your mother? – My mother is at home

4. IvaL un thangaiya? – Illai, IvaL en Akka, Mili.

இவள் உன் தங்கையா? – இல்லை, இவள் என் அக்கா, மிலி.

Is she your younger sister? – No, she is my elder sister, Mili.

(Peyar– பெயர்- Name,  Appa- அப்பா-Father,

Amma– அம்மா- Mother, Veedu – வீடு – Home,

Thangai – தங்கை – younger sister, Akka – அக்கா – elder sister,

Illai – இல்லை – No)

 

Now let us learn a few famous poetic expressions in Tamil

Name of the poet is also given.

  • OnRe Kulam, Ourvane Devan – Tirumular

ஒன்றே குலம், ஒருவனே தேவன். – திருமூலர்

(There exists) Only one Community and only one God

  • Annalum NOkkinAn avaLum NOkkinAL – Kavi Chakravarthi Kambar

அண்ணலும் நோக்கினான், அவளும் நோக்கினாள்.

– கவிச்சக்கரவர்த்தி கம்பர்

He glanced at her, and, She returned the glance

  • Chinnan chiru KiLiye, KannammA, Selva Kalanjiyame! –

– Maha Kavi Subramania Bharathiyar

சின்னஞ்சிறு கிளியே, கண்ணம்மா, செல்வக் களஞ்சியமே

– மஹா கவி சுப்பிரமணிய பாரதி

Oh pretty little Parrot, Kannamma (Darling)!

Oh the store house of my prosperity!

  • Tamizhukkum amudhenRu pe(y)r – Kavignar Bhrathi Dasan

தமிழுக்கும் அமுது என்று பேர் – கவிஞர் பாரதிதாசன்

Nectar is also the name for Tamil Language (of same sweetness)

  • KuRai Onrum Illai MaRai Murthy Kanna, MuRai onRum illai Govinda – Rajaji

குறை ஒன்றும் இல்லை, மறை மூர்த்தி கண்ணா

முறை ஒன்றும் இல்லை, கோவிந்தா – ராஜாஜி

No Wants at all Krishna, the lord of all scriptures

 (and, no) not even one complaint, Govinda! (the God)

  • KAlangaliL avaL vasantham, Kalaigalile aval Oviyam –

– Kaviarasu Kannadasan

காலங்களில் அவள் வசந்தம், கலைகளிலே அவள் ஓவியம்

                                                     – கவியரசு கண்ணதாசன்

Among seasons, she is (like) Spring;

Among arts she is (like a) Painting.

  • Kannukku Mai Azhagu, Kavithaikku Poi azhagu –

Kavignar Vairamuthu

கண்ணுக்கு மை அழகு, கவிதைக்கு பொய் அழகு

கவிஞர் வைரமுத்து

Eye shades (add) beauty to the eye(s);

Lies (add) beauty to the poetry.

 

Let us learn a few typical phrases in Tamil

கிட்டத்தட்ட – Kitta-tthatta – Approximately

ஏறத்தாழ       –  ERa-ththAzha – More or less

குத்துமதிப்பாக – kutthu mathippAga – as a rough estimate

சுமாரா – sumAra – fairly (close to)

Now a few words with twin syllables:

பளபள – paLa paLa – Shining

சிலுசிலு – Silu Silu – Very Cold

விடுவிடு – vidu vidu – double fast

வழுவழு – vazhu vazhu – Slippery

Just before closing this lesson, let me give you some sentences using a few of the above words:

1. அவனுடைய சம்பளம்  கிட்டத்தட்ட மாதம் ரூபாய் நூறாயிரம்.

Avanudaiya sambaLam kitta thatta mAdham rupai noorAiyiram

His salary will be approximately Rs 100,000 per month

2. அவனுடைய எடை சுமாரா எண்பது கிலோ இருக்கும்

Avanudaiya edai sumArA eNpathu kilo irukkum

His weight may be fairly close to Eighty Kgs

3. சிலுசிலு என்று காற்று வீசுகிறது.

silu silu endru KAtru veesukirathu

Very cold wind is blowing

4. பார்த்து, தரை வழுவழுப்பாக இருக்கிறது

pArthtu, tharai vazhu vazhuppaga irukkirathu

Look out, The floor is slippery.

We come to the end of Lesson 5. In lesson 6 we will try a paragraph of Tamil Text. We will also learn some more useful words.

 

 

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Spirituality and Patriotism in National Politics

March 24, 2018

There is a general feeling, promoted and attempted to be perpetuated, by leftists and the so-called liberals, that Indian Nationalists in the form of BJP/RSS have hijacked Swamy Vivekananda and Subash Chandra Bose as their icons of Spirituality and Patriotism. It is nice that these people at least agree that Swami Vivekananda and Sri Subash Chandra Bose are the Indian idols representing India’s Spiritual and Patriotic traditions. The thought and Sloka attributed by these leftists to Swami Vivekananda, as the evidence of his ‘secular’ and ‘pluralistic’ ideas, is actually the essence of Hindu thought and their way of living. The Sloka   “Aakashath Pathitham Thoyam Yatha Gachathi Sagaram, Sarvadeva Namaskaram Keshavam Prathi Gachathi”, is an ancient well known principle enshrined in every Hindu mind, even before the time of Swami Vivekananda. (Just as the rains falling from the sky, gets back to the sea; Prayers to all the different gods gets  back to the supreme GOD, Kesahav or Maha Vishnu)  This is one of the very first prayers taught to every child of devout Hindu parents. Most of the world religions have accepted this principle, that there is only one God, identified by different names and forms. As Hindus, we already have many deities, from forms to formless, from animals to trees and from five elements to stars and planets. We intrinsically know that all of them will lead to same Godhood. This principle was kept hi-jacked by the secular leftists, if at all, and it has recently been released and made known to their followers, emulating Swami Vivekananda. How can anyone say that the present regime is discouraging the above thought by projecting (or hijacking) Swami Vivekananda? Is it not totally illogical? When Vivekananda and his thoughts were easily available for all, where is the need for anyone to hijack?

Once I had a school mate (Mr. Abdul Subhan) with whom I used to exchange tiffins, of course, on days when he brings vegetarian food. In due course, just as a token of our friendship, he almost always brought vegetarian tiffin to be able to exchange with me every day. Eventually he became a vegetarian even at home on his own accord. Vegetarianism and Veganism are healthy modes of eating practices recognised all over the world. There is nothing spiritual or religious about it. By promoting vegetarianism one is not promoting Hindu religion and by promoting Veganism neither she is promoting Jainism. Forcing and fouling food habits either way is not acceptable.      

Spiritualism is beyond religion or culture or eating practices. Many of the so-called atheists and agnostics have displayed several trends of spiritual thinking, not necessarily religious. Spiritually inclined persons, irrespective of their religion (or no-religion) have always displayed better value systems. Such spiritual people with better value systems should be at the helm of all public affairs and especially in politics.

Integrity and Sense of Justice are also in some way spiritual qualities, evolved out of spiritual thinking. It has nothing to do with any religion or patriotism. Patriotism (or loyalty) is a must for certain disciplines of human activity. Though it is commonly called as loyalty, Patriotism is nobler than loyalty, since it involves sacrifice. In the name of global or universal view, our patriots and our soldiers and their selfless sacrifices cannot be insulted.   On the contrary they should be honoured and respected.

How can anyone hi-jack Spirituality and Patriotism, leave alone their idols? Senses of Spirituality and Patriotism are important requirement for any Political System, Political Party and Political Leadership. That is why nations have oath taking ceremonies for elected politicians and they also have National Anthems, Flags and Emblems. Do we not display our patriotism collectively on Independence Day and Republic Day?

If Spirituality and Patriotism are kept out of politics, we will have only mob-ocracy and not democracy.

Tamil – Class: 4 / Teaching Tamil Through English

February 11, 2018

 

Tamil – Class: 4

e have learnt inthe previous three classes, :almost all the alphabets of Tamil Language and also a number of simple Tamil words. We should next aim to make a few simple sentences. To do this we should learn a few more important words and their usages.

Let us know the pronouns in Tamil:

 

Pronouns1.jpg

pronouns2.jpg

Let us also learn some  Questions in Tamil and typical answers for them.

 

Question 1.jpg

Questions 2.jpg

 

 

 

In the next Class-5, we will make a few sentences with the words and usages we have learnt so far.

In the meantime one may get familiar with all those words and usages

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South Indian National Party

January 18, 2018

South Indian National Party
Today (11th March 2017) is the day our Prime Minister Modi and his party, the BJP have scored big wins in UP and Uttarakhand. While one can be happy that Modi and De-mo have eventually won, the size of victory was definitely not expected. Personally I am afraid that this may lead to complacence among the leaders of BJP. In a more narrow sense, I am even afraid this may lead to increased neglect of South India where BJP (and congress) are considerable weak. I have always been thinking we need a strong South India based national political party to offset this neglect. No central government, which is predominantly run by North India based national party, show much interest in solving the problems of the south. It perhaps wants the southern states to be permanently in a state of mutual conflict so that they do not gain much political clout in New Delhi. These North Indian Parties may even feel politically threatened by the unity of southern states. I have listed some of these issues in the following paragraphs. This is precisely the reason why I feel there is a need for a “South Indian National Party”. This party, SINP, should encompass all the southern States namely, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra, Telengana, Goa and Puduchery. In this context, I remember the old suggestion of elder statesman Rajaji, to form a Dakshin Pradesh, as compared to Uttar Pradesh in the North, which eventually developed as power centre in the national politics.

The neglect of south starts from early days of Sri Lankan Tamils conflict in 1960s. SPKF, Liquidation of LTTE, gifting of Kaccha Tivu are all subsequent effects of such neglect. There are several great rivers in the North, flowing through several states and being shared by them in a peaceful manner with proper agreements in place and monitored by the Central Govt. To name a few: Bhakra Management Board for sharing of Sutluj and other rivers among Punjab, Haryana, HP and Rajasthan; Narmada water between Gujarat and MP. But when it comes to south, Central Govt is keeping the following river problems unresolved for many years: Krishna water to Andhra (Almatti Dam issue), Mullai Periyar issue between Kerala and Tamil Nadu, Palar issue between Andhra and Tamil Nadu and finally Cauvery issue between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Even after Supreme Court has ruled a solution to this problem, Central Govt is not willing to form a Cauvery Management Board. Recently we have seen the inept handling of Sasikala, Jallikattu and Hydro Carbon issues. Only time we had some unity among the southern states was when, Kamaraj, Nijalingappa, VKRV Rao, C Subramaniam and R Venkatraman were at the helm of affairs in the Congress Party.

Hence I feel the leaders of next generation of politicians in South India, should think of forging an alliance with other such leaders in the other southern states and try and form a South based national party which we may call as “South Indian National Party”. It may propose a unified solution to the problems of South India. Some of their ideals could be:

1. Any inter-state problems should be discussed dispassionately between all the stake holders and propose at least temporary or interim solution which could ward off a permanent state of animosity between the states and its peoples
2. Discuss methods of sharing all the natural resources in a mutually profitable manner
3. Forge a cultural unity among the peoples of southern states. (Music, Dance, Movies and Literature will help a lot in this respect)
4. Impress on the central Govt to have at least one short session of Parliament in the South, say Bengaluru.
5. Arrange for members of legislators of other states to attend the Assembly sessions of any state. We may even invite a few members of Parliament for such sessions. This will promote unity and also familiarity with the problems specific to such state.
6. Last but not the least, there should be mutual respect among the different language groups and cultures.
7. Could promote Southern Tourism in a big way.

Many more ideals could be added after discussion with leaders of different regions.

I am sending this note to several new wave politicians in Southern States to set them thinking on these lines. I wish they will respond and take my idea forward.

L V Nagarajan / 11th March 2017
https://lvnaga.wordpress.com/

Thirukkural – 292

December 3, 2017

Chapter – 30 / Vaaymai/ Verse – 2

பொய்ம்மையும் வாய்மை யிடத்தே – புரைதீர்ந்த

நன்மை பயக்கும் எனின்.

Poymmaiyum vaaymai idatthE – purai theerndha

Nanmai payakkum enin

 

Poymmai(yum) – (Even) a lie

Vaaymai – Oral Integrity or communicative integrity

Purai – harm, crime

Purai Theerndha – Harmless, without criminal intent

Nanmai – Good, comfort, help

Payakkum – Yield, achieve

Nanmai Payakkum enin – If it yields good result of comfort or help.

Even a lie will be acceptable as vocal integrity, if it yields, but without any criminal intent, good result of comfort or help.

This whole chapter No.30 of ten verses speak about ‘Vaaymai’ as a virtue. Saint Tiruvalluvar defines Vaaymai in the first verse of the chapter as ‘any communication which does not bring harm to anyone’.

‘Vaaymai’ does not have a good translation in English. You may roughly call it as vocal (or communicative) integrity.

This Chapter talks about Truthfulness only in the last verse where the saint says ‘Vaaymai’ is better than ‘Meimmai’. He says there is no better truthfulness than communicative integrity.

He talks about Vaaymai in two more verses where he states vaaymai is the best form of penance and charity and it keeps your mind bright and without guilt. At the same time he extols the virtues of ‘Poyyamai’ or being against falsehood, in five verses. He does not at all approve any type of falsehood.

We may compare this with a famous Sanskrit verse of Saint Adi Sankara: “Satyam bruyat priyam bruyat.  Na bruyat satyam apriyam. Priyam cha nanrutam bruyat. Esha dharmah sanatanah.”  Truth is always spoken with kindness. Truth is never spoken in a harsh way. Even with kindness falsehood is not to be spoken. This is the eternal path of virtue.

Here also the saint give preference to Vaaymai than Meimmai, i.e., Communicative integrity than truthfulness.  After all, Tamil Nadu Government’s emblem saying வாய்மையே வெல்லும் (Vaaymai alone triumphs) is right, instead of the usual (Satymeva Jayate) Truth alone triumphs. We may rank these virues as: Poyyamai is the best, Vaaimai is the next and Meimmai is the last.

There is a proverb in Tamil which says “Unnmai Sudum” (உண்மை சுடும்​), Bear Truth Hurts. As per both Adi Sankara and Tiruvalluvar, we should not tell this truth which hurts. (i.e.) if you are unable to tell it in a way it does not hurt. In such a situation where the ‘Truth Hurts’, It is better to tell a lie, provided it does not have any criminal intent. Hence the Titukkural says,

Even a lie is better than the truth if it yields

Haven to a disturbed situation

Bye till the next Tirukkural.

 

Tamil – Class: 3 / Teaching Tamil Through English

November 9, 2017

Class – 3

In class-1 we learnt Tamil Alphabets with their pronunciations. We learnt about basic vowels(6), extended vowels(6), consonants(18), and symbols for modifying these consonants. In class-2, we learnt a few words with their meanings. We also learnt about so called ‘northern alphbets’ to help us write and pronounce correctly, words from other languages. In this class-3, let us learn about some special features of Tamil phonetics.

First, let us see a few words where the hard consonants appear in there different vocal forms.

காரம் – KaaRaM – Spicy; ராகம் – RaaGaM – Melody, மேகம் – MEHum/MEGaM – Cloud. (Ka being used in three different vocal forms: Ka, Ga, Ha)

தங்கம் – ThaNGaM – Gold (here a soft consonant is explicitly used to soften ‘Ka’ to ‘Ga’)

சக்கை – ChaKKai – Remains of a fruit after Juice is extracted. Ka is doubled for harder accent.

சித்தி – ChiTThi – Mother’s younger sister, மோசம் – MoSaM – bad, பச்சை – PaChChai – Green, மஞ்சள் – MaNJaL –Yellow (here Cha is used in different vocal forms. Soft consonant again used in the last word, Tha is doubled for harder accent in the first word)

‘Ta, Tha, Pa, Rra’  (ட, த, ப, ற​)   also have different vocal forms as below

ட :  டீ – Tea – Tea, பாடு – PADu – Sing, பாட்டு – PATTu – Song, நண்டு – NaNDu – Crab

த : தங்கை – ThaNGai – Younger Sister, பாதி – PAdhi – Half, கத்தி – Katthi – Knife, பந்து – PaNDhu – Ball :

ப :  படம் – PaDaM – Picture, சுபம் – SuBaM – All well, கப்பல் – KaPPaL – Ship,  கம்பி – KaMBi – Metal Rod

ற : பறி – PaRri – Grab, வெற்றி – VeTRri – Victory, பன்றி – PaNDRri – Pig

It may be puzzling for some, to know which vocals to use. However in most of the cases meaning do not change even if we use a different vocal form. The words will be understood properly in its context.

There are some letters which even some Tamils do not pronounce correctly. They are La, (r)La and Zha; (i.e) ல, ள and ழ. Let us learn a few words involving these letters:

La (ல) is pronounced with the tip of the tongue just behind the upper teeth. (r)La (ள) is done with the tip of the tongue slightly behind in upper cavity. Zha (ழ) is done with the tip of the tongue still behind, deep in the upper cavity. The following words show their use. Sound bytes are included to help you pronounce them properly.

வலி, வளி, வழி – VaLi, Va(r)Li, VaZhi – Ache/Pain, Air(Atmosphere), Path

தலை, தளை, தழை – ThaLai, Tha(r)Lai, ThaZhai – Head, impediment/Bond, vegetation

பல்லி, பள்ளி, பழி – PaLLi, Pa(r)LLi, PaZhi – Lizard, School, Blame/revenge

வலம், வளம், பழம் – VaLaM, Va(r)LaM, PaZhaM – Right side, prosperity, Fruit

Ancient Tamil Literature

Tamil is one of the classical Languages of the world, along with Sanskrit. Tamil literary history is very ancient and rich. There were distinctly three periods of development of Tamil literature usually called as Sangam periods. Sangam means Academy and there were three Sangams. The last Sangam was from 400BC to 400AD and called as Kadai Sangam (கடைச்சங்கம், or the Last Academy). The literature of this period, known as Sangam Literature, are the only ones available from these ancient periods. The works of earlier two Sangams are many centuries older and now only known as just names. The literary history of Tamil records them as ‘lost in tsunami’. Sangam literatures, and even some ancient Sanskrit works, record a massive tsunami much before 400BC which destroyed a very big landscape known as Kumari Kandam (Continent of Kumari), also known as Lemuria. All the works of earlier two academies were lost forever as per this historical account. However modern history could not find much evidence of this tsunami and the Lost Land. The (3rd) Sangam literature is grouped into three parts – பத்துப்பாட்டு (Ten Anthologies), எட்டுத்தொகை (Eight Collections) and பதினெண்கீழ்கணக்கு (Eighteen Poetic Works).

Tirukkural (திருக்குறள்), by a saint poet Tiruvalluvar is one of the works in the last group of eighteen and is widely translated in almost all major languages of the world. I am giving below the first couplet of this great work consisting 1330 couplets, divided into 133 chapters of ten each

அகர முதல எழுத்தெல்லாம் – ஆதி

பகவன் முதற்றே உலகு

Akara Mudala ezhutthellam – Aadhi

Bhagavan Mudatre’ Ulagu

Meaning:

‘A’ is the start of all alphabets (of all languages) – (Just as)

GOD is the Origin of the world (of this whole Universe)

You may like to listen the audio of this verse given below:

 

Here is a Tamil proverb which states the importance of ‘Letters and Numbers’.

எண்ணும் எழுத்தும் கண் எனத் தகும்.

Ennum Ezhutthum Kann ena Thahum.

Meaning:

Numbers and Letters are rendered as the eyes (for obtaining knowledge)

 

With this thought let us conclude our Tamil class – 3


 

Toilets for Multitude

October 24, 2017

Toilet – Ek Prem Katha

L V Nagarajan

On 2nd Oct 2017, Gandhi Jayanthi (the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi), I saw the Hindi Movie ‘Toilet – Ek Prem Katha’. It is about ‘Open Defecation’ prevalent in India and about the public and private efforts to eradicate the same. While the movie is mainly telling the story form ladies’ point of view – about their privacy, hygiene and safety, the social aspects are also discussed.

This movie reminded me about an incident and the subsequent interaction I had when I was a 10-year old boy in my village, Sholavandan, near Madurai (India). It was summer vacation time for the schools when several of my cousins visit us and spend the vacations with us. One of my city cousins (no name please) visiting us, elder to me by 5 years, called me one morning to accompany him for a walk. I went along happily with him. We went along the railway line a distance of about 500 meters near a small canal and a bridge. I understood his purpose when he asked me to take care of his wrist watch and purse. After he finished ‘it’ and when we were walking back home. I asked him ‘Why here? We have a toilet at home’. The answer he gave me opened my eyes of conscience. He said, ‘Rajoo, the toilet in our house is an open type dry lavatory which is not very hygienic. Also, I don’t like manual scavenging’.

Yes. Here is a problem. Why many of us want others to clean our toilets, even the modern sanitary ones? Why public toilets are so unclean? Even now don’t we avoid using a public toilet unless it is an emergency? Whenever we stay in a hotel, first thing we inspect are the toilets, whether they are clean and hygienic. Don’t we?

The multitude of people in India cannot afford space for their own toilets. Hence the need arises for common toilets and public toilets. People who do not want to clean their own toilets, how will they ever keep common and public toilets clean? In addition, will these common facilities like flush-out and water closet be kept well maintained, in working condition? This is the area where we have to impart training to our people on basic hygiene and co-operation in handling such common facilities.

Even sanitary toilets require two septic tanks which should be alternately emptied and cleaned at least once in five years. How often have you seen it done? (almost never). Eventually, it gets choked up and blocked and soon becomes unusable and becomes a major health hazard. These are all special problems of a densely populated country like ours.

As shown in the above movie, at least for the male population in many thousands of villages in India, ‘Field Defecation’ seems to be a very practical solution. We may perhaps think of finding ways and means of making this practice, private and hygienic. In my school days there used to be a class known as ‘Citizenship Training’. In one of those books, I remember to have seen a design of a mobile toilet perfectly suited for our population. It was somewhat similar to what is given in the following link. http://akvopedia.org/wiki/Dry_Toilet.

It consists of a pit over which a pedestal or a squatting slab is provided. A pile of sand or saw dust or dry earth nearby can be used to pour into the pit after every use. A second pit may be used over which the whole facility as above will be moved to enable hygienic emptying and cleaning of the first pit. A batch of such toilets can be made mobile and moved over different pits, specially prepared in the fields away from the village. Similar common toilets (or home toilets), within the village precincts, may be used by seniors, ladies and children. They can also be used by others, during unfair weather conditions and during nightly periods. This precludes the need for mechanised scavenging for periodically cleaning the pits. There are many designs available for producing bio-fuel just as gobar-gas plants. Such initiatives, of using appropriate technologies, must be encouraged to be undertaken by municipalities and gram panchayats, instead of forcing down a uniform policy and design by state and central governments.

Jai Ho to Swacch Bharat

 Victory to Clean India

_________________________________________________________

 

24 Hours-Day X 7 Days-Week

October 5, 2017

24 Hours-Day X 7 Days-Week

L V Nagarajan

Introduction:

In one of my earlier blogs (titled Tamil/Indian Solar Calendar) I have discussed the periods of a day, a month and a year along with evolution of different calendars based on the astral movements of Earth, Moon, Sun and the Stars. I have only briefly discussed about a more convenient period of a week of 7-days. But the evolution of a ‘24-hours Day’ and a ‘7-days Week’ is also quite intriguing and interesting. I should thank my cousins Giri and Vasu, for inspiring me into this research.

History:

European and other Western scientific historians always attribute all ancient scientific developments initially to Greece, then to Egypt and Alexandria and then to Babylon. Generally they do not go beyond Babylon, because they know it will lead them to Hindu/India. In the case of establishment and evolution of Time/Day system, the researchers went one step further down to south-east of Babylon, up to a region known as Chaldea. It is now the general acceptance, that 24-Hours-Day and 7-Days-Week was established and evolved in Chaldea, in 2nd Century BC, the area becoming a part of Babylon in later periods. It is evident, the researchers did not see beyond Chaldea towards further south east, i.e. India.

Chaldea:

Let see briefly the history of Chaldea. Chaldea (/kælˈdiːə/) or Chaldaea (ref -1) was a Semitic-speaking nation which existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia. It was located in the marshy land of the far south eastern corner of Mesopotamia. Ur Kaśdim (ref -1) commonly translated as Ur of the Chaldees, is a city mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the birthplace of the Israelite and Ismaelite  patriarch  Abraham. Chaldea is pronounced locally as ‘Kauldee’, which some scholars of Indology (ref -2) say has evolved from ‘Kauldev’ which is a sect of Kashmiri Brahmins.  “Chaldean, more correctly Kaul-Deva (Holy Kauls), was not the name of a specific ethnicity but the title of an ancient Hindu Brahmanical priestly caste, which lived in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Indian state of Kashmir”. Chaldea region consists of people who have migrated from east through the regions of Afghanistan. Abraham’s father Terah was living in a place called Ur (yes, a town, in many languages in India). He was apparently of Hindu origin and hence he named his son Brahm, the supreme soul. It later evolved as Abraham. (ref -3)

The Chaldean religion is the outcome of three great religions, the Indian, the Mazdean, and the Egyptian, and bears direct relationship to all of these. To place it still clearer, the Babylonian system recognized  the first ONE (Ad), who is never named but only acknowledged in thought, just as the Hindu Swayambhuva (Or Tamil’s Adi Bhagawan – LVN).The Babylonian civilization was neither born nor developed in that country. It was imported from India, and the importers were Brahmanical Hindus. Science has discovered enough to inform us that Sanskrit originals of Nepal, were translated by Buddhist missionaries into nearly every Asiatic tongue. Likewise Pali manuscripts were translated in Siamese, and carried to Burma and Siam; it is easy therefore to account for the same religious myths circulating in so many countries. (ref-4).

Abraham, son of Terah, lived in Chaldea during 1900BC. The period of Biblical Abraham is also around 1900 BC (ref – 5). Abraham is considered to be the father of Jewish race and religion. Later on other Abrahamic religions like Christianity and Islam also followed.

“Bus was Abraham Real? Good Question. (ref-6) Historians today are divided on whether the tales about Abraham are mythology. The problem is lack of archaeological records. – – – – In the secular view, however, Judaism has to begin somewhere. Someone had to believe god had spoken to him. Why not call that person, Abraham?” According to the above research, even the area known as Chaldea is far south-east of the city of Babylon. The town Abraham lived, Ur, is on southern part of this area. Later on the whole area came to be called as Babylon.

With such a history of Chaldea, it is rather obvious we have to look elsewhere for the origin of 24×7 day/week system.

24 Hours-Day:

Initially, ancient men divided the day only into day and night. The first ever division of a day into smaller units are seen in ancient Hindu scriptures of 4000 BC. Herein there are mentions of a day being divided into Ghatikas (Nazhikai in Tamil). Sunrise to sunset was divided into 30 ghatikas and similarly sunset to sunrise was also divided into 30 ghatikas. It did not take them long to find that these periods are neither same nor consistent. They then standardised the time measure of a ghatika by a standard pot with a hole at the bottom. The time taken for this pot full of water to empty through the hole was standardized as a Ghatika and a gong was sounded to indicate this passage of time. It was calibrated in such a way that 60 Ghatikas was the time between two successive sunrises. Obviously in those days, Sun rise was considered as the start of the day. When ancient Hindus observed other heavenly objects also through their naked eye, especially the brighter planets like Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Mars and Saturn, they believed that along with Sun and Moon even these visible planets affect the life on earth and that belief lead to a new ‘science’, Jyothish, now known as astrology. Earliest Hindu scripture available on Jyothish is Brihat Parasara Hora Sastra (ref -7). It is a compilation of Indian astrology existing at the time. In this text, Sage Parasara first describes how to record one’s time of birth, or lagna. He describes several lagnas- House Lagna (or Bhava), Hora lagna, Ghatika Lagna. “After noting down the time of birth after sunrise in Ghatikas and fractions of a Ghatika (known as Vighatika or Vinadi), it is divided by 5 to get House Ghatika or (Bhava). Hora lagna is obtained by dividing the time of birth in ghatikas, further by 2. For ghatika lagna only Ghatikas and Vighatikas are considered”, (i.e.) Bhava = Ghatikas/5 and Hora = Bhava/2.  Since 60 ghatikas make a day, which clearly amounts to 24 horas. This may perhaps be the start of 24-Hour day. How this Hora became Hour is another story.

“Parasara was the father of Sage Vyasa of Mahabharata. According to Varahamihira, Yuthishtra, the Pandava King of Mahabharata lived 2526 years ahead of Saka Era, which means 2448 BC. This will place Parasara’s time to be at least 2600BC” (Ref-8).

‘Hora’ is a word used for time/hour in many languages, especially in the regions around Egypt. Most accepted theory is that the word ‘Hora’ is of Jewish origin, historically derived from early Chaldean civilisation.  As we had discussed earlier, Abraham’s father Terah named his son Brahm, the supreme soul. It later evolved as Abraham. So Abraham was a follower of the Vedic religion, which at that time was spread all over the world and was not confined to India alone, as it later came to be. Abraham, father of Jewish and Ismaelite religions, must have learnt about Ghatika, Hora and Yama (Jama) time periods from his father or from their traditional Hindu holy texts.

With all the above studies, it is safe to assume that Abraham, credited with the idea of 24-Hours-Day was actually aware of definition of Ghatika, Hora and Yama (Or Jama, 3-Hours)) as divisions of time periods in the ancient Hindu way of life in which he also once belonged to. Even today we call the modern clocks as Ghadi in Hindi and Ghatikaram in Tamil. Please refer to   http://sowingseedsofthought.blogspot.in/2011/06/was-indian-time-keeping-technique.html for an interesting account of how the time was kept throughout the day in ancient India. Abraham was not perhaps interested in Indian astrology and hence he was interested to take up only Hour (or Hora), Minutes and Seconds as units of time. Since India was already using Hora as a unit of time it was fairly easy and acceptable for modern India to adapt to the international time standard of HH:MM:SS, with 24-hour days. But for religious and cultural purposes even now we use Ghatikas and Vighatikas (or Nazhikai and Vinadi in Tamil). We also use Shuba Horas for finding auspicious periods. Other time periods used till today, are the Yama (or Jama for temple rituals) and Muhurtha for holy rites like marriages.

7 Days-Week

Now let us consider the time period of a WEEK. Many Egyptian, European and Abrahamic cultures had time periods of a week which were neither consistent nor regular. They started by coinciding them with the phases of the moon. The 28/29 day cycle of moon was divided into 4 parts to make a week, but needing constant adjustment with intermittent 8-day weeks. There were cultures which had even working weeks of 8/10 days. Here again the Chaldean Hindus came to the rescue.

At some point of time in ancient astral history of India, Hindus started attributing the influence of the 7 heavenly objects (Sun, Moon and the 5 visible planets) to every hour (or Hora) of the day, in addition to every day, to every luni/solar month and to every planetary year. They found the planet Saturn to be the slowest around the sun, and the Moon to be the fastest around the sun, relative to Earth. Saturn’s average orbital velocity was observed as 0.33 times the orbital velocity of earth. As seen from the earth Sun takes 365 days to go around the Earth whereas Moon, following a similar path in the ecliptic, just takes 29 days to go around the earth. Hence its speed is the fastest at 365/29=12.59 relative to Earth. The table below gives the speeds of other planets relative to Earth.

No.

Moon/ Planet

Orbital  Speed (kM/s)

Speed relative to Earth

1

Moon

365 days / 29 days

12.59

2

Mercury 47.87

47.87/29.78

1.61

3

Venus 35.02

35.02/29.78

1.18

4

Earth/Sun 29.78

29.78/29.78

1.00

5

Mars 24.08

24.08/29.78

0.81

6

Jupiter 13.07

13.07/29.78

0.44

7

Saturn 9.69

9.69/29.78

0.33

I have made two significant changes in the above table. Moon has been included as the fastest heavenly object. Earth will be replaced by Sun, as relative to Earth, Sun is rotating the earth. The ancient Hindus believed that slower planets had larger influence on the lives on Earth even on daily and hourly basis. As said earlier, at some point of time in ancient history, Hindus started to believe in a 7-hour cycle of influence by all the seven Grahas as above, starting with Saturn and then going through all the Grahas from Jupiter to Moon, each period of influence lasting for one hour, beginning from sunrise. The cycle looks as below:

The above cycle starts from Sunrise of Day-0 and continues. By Hindu astrology each day is defined by the first Hora of the day (i.e. the first hour after sun rise) and hence named the days after the graha which rules the first hour of the day after sunrise. The days were called ‘vaaraas’ in Sanskrit and hence we had Ravi Vara, Soma Vara, Mangal Vara, Buddh Vara, Guru Vara, Shukra Vara, and Sani Vara (which directly translate into Sun-Day, Mon-Day etc). The cycle naturally repeated on and on, and ancient Hindus landed on a 7-day weekly cycle more by default than by design. A ‘week’ was never used as an explicit time period in ancient cultural history of India.

Abraham of Chaldea might have struggled hard to make the other cultures of the world to accept the week days named after planets. Many western communities accepted the 7-day week some time during 4th Century AD, but used numbers 1 to 7 to represent week days. When they eventually did accept Sunday to Saturday nomenclature, for centuries, they could not figure out why the days/planets were ordered specifically this way.  Perhaps westerners were never interested to know or to acknowledge, the Indian contribution behind this. As recorded in (ref – 9): “No one is certain as to how the idea of planetary hours came into being.  The only thing that is certain is that it is responsible for the order of the days of the week and therefore predates the Bible and the Genesis story for the creation. While the planetary hour’s true origin is something of a mystery, ancient astrologers used them to find the most auspicious time to start something important.  It was also used in horary astrology to see what influences were predominant for a given question. At some point in the distant past, by what philosophical reasoning is unknown, a sunrise or sunset defined the first planetary hour in history.  It has run on uninterrupted in this manner (as far as I know) longer than recorded history.” That nails the truth.

Twist In the Tail (or Tale)

I had an intriguing question. When did this Planetary-Hora cycle started, (i.e.) which and when was actually the day-0, mentioned in the above table? The first identifiable year for which a date is cited complete with day of the week is 6th Feb 0060 AD, as per the then existing Julian calendar. Found it very funny to note that this occurs in ‘Pompeiian graffito’. Pompei is a city in ancient Roman Empire that was immersed in ash from a volcano, Mount Vesuvius, in 0076 AD. It was dug up again only in 18th Century. They found thousands of graffiti in the walls and floorings of the ancient houses, many of them erotic. (You may google on this if interested). This particular graffiti mentions as below – “eighth day before the ides (middle) of February, day of the Sun”. Hence we know now 6th Feb 0060 was a Sunday. Or is it? As per the present system it is a Wednesday. We conclude two things from this:

  1. Romans started following 7-day week with planetary names in 0060 AD or earlier
  2. Romans were following Sunset as the start of the day. Day-4 in the planetary table given above is Sunday as per Sunset Hora and Wednesday as per Sunrise Hora.

Julian calendar used all over from 45 BC up to 16th century AD, which erred by 11 minutes, 14 Seconds in a tropical year. England accepted the new revised Gregorian calendar only in 1751 AD, 150 years after it was proposed, and it had to advance their calendar by 14 days to correct the accumulated error. Since it was exactly two weeks, the days of the week did not get affected. Luckily somewhere between 60AD and 1751AD world adopted Midnight as the start of the day, (00.00.00 Hrs after 23.59.59 Hrs) and start of the working week as Monday.

Conclusion:

I enjoyed this journey back in ‘TIME’ literally. Still it is a mystery, when and where did this idea of Planetary Hours originate. I could not find any reference to its origin. But one culture which is still using these ‘Horas’, to find auspicious and inauspicious times for various spheres of activities, are the Tamils. Readers may comment on this aspect, if they find any information.

References:

  1. Wikipedia
  2. http://brahminkhalifa.blogspot.in/2011/11/who-is-abrahm-ibrahm-brahma-and.html
  3. https://ocoy.org/original-christianity/the-aquarian-gospel/from-india-to-chaldea/)
  4. http://www.wisdomworld.org/additional/ListOfCollatedArticles/TheChaldeanLegend.html by H. P. BLAVATSKY )
  5. Comparative Religion For Dummies by William P. Lazarus, Mark Sullivan
  6. http://www.hermetics.org/Abraham2.htmlWho Was Abraham?  by Gene D. Matlock, B.A., M.A. 
  7. Ways of the natives – Parasara’s Hora Sastra – pp25, and from: http://www.barbarapijan.com/bpa/Amsha/lagna_vishesika_hora_bhava_ghati.htm
  8. Sūryasiddhānta: An Astro-linguistic Study By Sudhi Kant Bharadwaj
  9. http://www.astrology-x-files.com/help-timaeus/planet-hour.html
  10. https://io9.gizmodo.com/5825459/the-roman-city-of-pompeii-pictures-of-a-lost-world-frozen-in-time

Teaching Tamil through English

September 8, 2017

Many parents of Tamil origin may not have learnt Tamil as a language anytime in their life. Some of them may regret it now and may want to learn Tamil, at least as a language of conversation and understanding. They may also want to teach their children Tamil, as they are not learning the same in their schools. Once children learn basic Tamil, they, depending on their interest, may pick-up deeper knowledge of Tamil on their own at a later stage in life. Unfortunately, not much work is done on such teaching of Tamil, and the regular pedagogy kills even their initial interest and more often than not, they discontinue learning and teaching Tamil. I have two lovely granddaughters (Mili and Tara) who have also started learning Tamil recently in California. I am sure the Tamil classes there is adequately interesting and enthusing for them to continue. With my small experience of teaching Tamil to my daughter and son in early 80’s, I thought of putting together my way of teaching Tamil in a series of blogs, which could be useful to Tamil loving parents in the US and elsewhere. Let me start straight away.

Class – 1

It is always said that Tamil Alphabet has 247+ characters. Any learner who hears this, immediately loses interest to some extent.  In its actual sense, Tamil language has only 26+ characters. Of course it has a dozen more symbols (and a few special characters for writing words from Sanskrit and other foreign languages). Let us first have a look at all these characters.

Five Basic Vowels: The following are the basic vowels in Tamil. Their pronunciation is also given right below.

A as in ‘Avatar’ I as in ‘In’ U as in ‘pUt’ E as in ‘End’

O as in ‘One’

 

Two Composite Vowels: There are two composite vowels as below:

Ai as in ‘Aisle’

Ou as in ‘Out’

The first one above is a combination of: அ  and  இ   =    ஐ

Second one above is a combination of:   அ  and   உ = ஔ

 

Five Extended Vowels: The five basic vowels as above have their extended versions with slightly elongated pronunciation as compared to

A as in ‘Avatar’ – I as in ‘In’ –   U as in ‘pUt’ –  E as in ‘End’ –   O as in ‘One’

(As below)

Au as in ‘Aunt’ Ea as in ‘Easy’ Oo as in ‘Ooze’ A as in ‘Area’

Ow as in ‘Own’

                   

Special Character:

ஃ     —    Akh

This is a special character grouped along with vowels to add a specific accent to a few consonants. We will list it here but learn about it later.

 

Eighteen Consonants: There are eighteen consonants in Tamil. They are as below:

Ka

Ga

Cha

Sa

Ta

Da

Tha

Dha

Pa

Ba

Rra

Tra

The above six are called Hard consonants. However same letters are used for softer pronunciations also as shown.

 

Nga Gnya Rn as in ‘BoRn’ Na Ma

Na

The above six letters are known as Soft consonants. The two ‘Na’s are used in different contexts. They are also used to soften the corresponding hard consonants shown earlier. We will learn about them later.

 

Ya Ra La Va Zha

Rl as in Pearl

The above six letters are known as Medium consonants. The letter ‘Zha’ is very special for Tamil language and its pronunciation presents some difficulty even for some Tamils. La (ல) is pronounced with the tip of the tongue just behind the upper teeth. Rla (ள) is done with the tip of the tongue slightly behind in upper cavity. Zha (ழ) is done with the tip of the tongue still behind.

 

Symbols: The following table shows the symbols used to add the vowels to the above consonants. A few typical consonants are shown with symbols added.

Basic Vowels:

Symbols

_

ி 3 types  ெ

 ொ

Consonants with symbol added:

கி கு கெ

கொ

Ka

Ki Ku Ke

Ko

சி சு செ சொ
தி து தெ

தொ

 

Composite Vowels:

Symbols:

Consonants:

கை

கௌ க்
kai kau

k

as in ‘Park’

சை

சௌ ச்
தை தௌ

த்

 

Extended Vowels

Symbols

 ா

 ீ 3 types  ே

Consonants

கா

கீ கூ கே கோ
kaa kee koo kay

koe

சா

சீ சூ சே சோ
தா தீ தூ தே

தோ

The letters with a dot above them are known as ‘Otru’ – that is, it sounds without any vowel, like, ‘ch’ and ‘th’.

 

There are a few more special characters and symbols which we can learn later.

The complete list of alphabets as per the above scheme is given in

http://tamilcube.com/learn-tamil/tamil-alphabets-chart.aspx

This is enough for class-1. In Class -2 we will learn a few words using some of these alphabets

Bye for now.

 

Pink Poem by Tanveer Ghazi

August 14, 2017

Movie – Pink (16 Sept 2016)

Poem –  Tu Khud Ki Khoj Mein Nikal

Lyrics – Tanveer Ghazi

Rendering by – Amitabh Bachchan

 

In an earlier blog (Feminism and Humanism), I had expressed my views on aggressive feminism displayed in a write-up on CNN-IBN web site. I give below a summary of my views expressed therein.

  1. A woman can decide to take time to internalize and process an incident. Outward expression may hide internal trauma. But In case of serious crimes such as rape and sexual assault one should not hide her internal trauma. She should express her internal trauma as quickly as possible after any such crime. Otherwise you are risking yourself of mal-intent.
  2. A woman can choose to file a complaint at any time she deems fit – even a month after the incident if she so chooses. However for any crime, the complaint should be made immediately after the crime. Surely efforts will be made by the criminal to stall the same. Any undue delay will only aid the criminal in such efforts.
  3. Even if it started as a consensual affair, a woman can say ‘no’ at any time. When you start any activity jointly, it is always difficult to walk out in the middle. This is very much true in consensual sex. Think thousand times before your consent, either by intent or by default. Otherwise, say ‘no’ at the earliest.
  4. A woman can have multiple sexual partners. What she chooses to do in her own time isn’t anybody’s concern. It is immoral for both men and women to have multiple sex partners, but may be not illegal. Anyone has a right to be immoral. Having any kind of expertise, or lack of it, does not enhance or diminish this right.
  5. A woman’s clothes aren’t testimony to her character. True. Indecent people do parade in decent clothes. Some time, very decent people do come in rather revealing clothes. But decent people, both men and women, are expected to attire themselves decently in public and they also expect others to do the same. Revealing clothes expose people, especially women, to some risks.
  6. Even in a feminist world, men have to be courteous to women. Women value generosity in a man. Similarly, men value modesty in a woman.
  7. Don’t exploit woman’s emotions as leverage for bargaining for her freedom and choices she makes. Many women are also seen to exploit such emotions against men. Any such exploitation either way is despicable.
  8. You wouldn’t like to be told how to live your life. Don’t tell woman how to live hers. Woman sometimes need advice of friends and close relatives, even on some private matters. She should not hesitate to ask. Any unsolicited advice does irritate you, I agree.
  9. Her freedom – to wear what she wants, to go where she wants, to choose her friends – isn’t yours to bestow. Any youngster will sometimes need the advice and acceptance of his/her seniors on such matters. Outsiders definitely do not have any say on this.

Having said all this purely in the interest of safety of my wife, sisters, mothers, daughters, colleagues and friends, I sincerely wish for more space for all women to grow, to move about, to progress, to enjoy and to achieve as per their wish and aspirations. It is going to be about a year since the release of the Hindi film PINK, where Amitabh Bachan plays the part of an advocate for the victimized girls and makes many significant statements supporting freedom and safety for women. He also advices girls some responsible behavior while demanding and enjoying such freedom. At the end of the film he celebrates women freedom with a poem rendered very convincingly, in his sonorous voice.

On this Independence Day of India (15th Aug 2017), we celebrate the independence India obtained from Britain. We also celebrate this as a day of freedom from many other ills of our society which we got rid off during this 70 years of Independence.

Let me celebrate this Independence Day 2017 as a day for Women’s Freedom, by translating the PINK Poem into English and dedicating the same to Women’s Freedom.

 

Translation by L V Nagarajan

 

You decide your path and depart

Why fear? And hesitate for what?

Go! Even time is on your side, Start

Yes time is on your side, Start.

Decide your path and depart

 

Folks who restrict; bend them as a bow

Break the restricts to pieces

And use them as arrows,

Make them as arrows

Decide your path and depart

 

Your conduct so pure, why hardships to endure 

With sins in their mind,

Who allows them to judge you?

Why allow them to judge you?

Decide your path and depart

 

Those tricks of cruelty, burn them to ashes

The wick in your lamp can become

The big torch of your anger

Light the torch of your anger

Decide your path and depart

 

Raise your scarf as banner; for skies to shudder

If ever your scarf falls,

A quake should occur. 

Yes, a quake will occur

Decide your path and depart

 

Original Hindi Version

 

Tu khud ki khoj mein nikal   Tu kisliye hatash hai

Tu chal, Tere Wajood ki  Samay ko bhi talash hai.

samay ko bhi talash hai

(Tu khud ki khoj mein nikal)

Jo tujhse lipti bediayan…Samajhna inko vastra tu

Ye bediyan pighal ke..Bana le inko shastra tu..

Bana le inko shastra tu

(Tu khud ki khoj mein nikal)

Charitra jab pavitra hai..Toh kyoun hai ye dasha teri

Ye papiyon ko hak nahi..Ki lein pariksha teri.

Ki lein pariksha teri

(Tu khud ki khoj mein nikal)

Jala ke bhasm kar use jo krurta ka jal hai

Tu Aarati ki lau nahi..Tu krodh ki mashal hai..

Tu krodh ki mashal hai

(Tu khud ki khoj mein nikal)

Chunar ko udaa dhwaj bana gagan bhi kap-kapayegaa

Agar teri chunar geeri..Toh ek bhukamp ayegaa.

.ek bhukamp ayegaa

(Tu khud ki khoj mein nikal)

Happy Independence day to all.