Archive for October, 2017

Toilets for Multitude

October 24, 2017

Toilet – Ek Prem Katha

L V Nagarajan

On 2nd Oct 2017, Gandhi Jayanthi (the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi), I saw the Hindi Movie ‘Toilet – Ek Prem Katha’. It is about ‘Open Defecation’ prevalent in India and about the public and private efforts to eradicate the same. While the movie is mainly telling the story form ladies’ point of view – about their privacy, hygiene and safety, the social aspects are also discussed.

This movie reminded me about an incident and the subsequent interaction I had when I was a 10-year old boy in my village, Sholavandan, near Madurai (India). It was summer vacation time for the schools when several of my cousins visit us and spend the vacations with us. One of my city cousins (no name please) visiting us, elder to me by 5 years, called me one morning to accompany him for a walk. I went along happily with him. We went along the railway line a distance of about 500 meters near a small canal and a bridge. I understood his purpose when he asked me to take care of his wrist watch and purse. After he finished ‘it’ and when we were walking back home. I asked him ‘Why here? We have a toilet at home’. The answer he gave me opened my eyes of conscience. He said, ‘Rajoo, the toilet in our house is an open type dry lavatory which is not very hygienic. Also, I don’t like manual scavenging’.

Yes. Here is a problem. Why many of us want others to clean our toilets, even the modern sanitary ones? Why public toilets are so unclean? Even now don’t we avoid using a public toilet unless it is an emergency? Whenever we stay in a hotel, first thing we inspect are the toilets, whether they are clean and hygienic. Don’t we?

The multitude of people in India cannot afford space for their own toilets. Hence the need arises for common toilets and public toilets. People who do not want to clean their own toilets, how will they ever keep common and public toilets clean? In addition, will these common facilities like flush-out and water closet be kept well maintained, in working condition? This is the area where we have to impart training to our people on basic hygiene and co-operation in handling such common facilities.

Even sanitary toilets require two septic tanks which should be alternately emptied and cleaned at least once in five years. How often have you seen it done? (almost never). Eventually, it gets choked up and blocked and soon becomes unusable and becomes a major health hazard. These are all special problems of a densely populated country like ours.

As shown in the above movie, at least for the male population in many thousands of villages in India, ‘Field Defecation’ seems to be a very practical solution. We may perhaps think of finding ways and means of making this practice, private and hygienic. In my school days there used to be a class known as ‘Citizenship Training’. In one of those books, I remember to have seen a design of a mobile toilet perfectly suited for our population. It was somewhat similar to what is given in the following link. http://akvopedia.org/wiki/Dry_Toilet.

It consists of a pit over which a pedestal or a squatting slab is provided. A pile of sand or saw dust or dry earth nearby can be used to pour into the pit after every use. A second pit may be used over which the whole facility as above will be moved to enable hygienic emptying and cleaning of the first pit. A batch of such toilets can be made mobile and moved over different pits, specially prepared in the fields away from the village. Similar common toilets (or home toilets), within the village precincts, may be used by seniors, ladies and children. They can also be used by others, during unfair weather conditions and during nightly periods. This precludes the need for mechanised scavenging for periodically cleaning the pits. There are many designs available for producing bio-fuel just as gobar-gas plants. Such initiatives, of using appropriate technologies, must be encouraged to be undertaken by municipalities and gram panchayats, instead of forcing down a uniform policy and design by state and central governments.

Jai Ho to Swacch Bharat

 Victory to Clean India

_________________________________________________________

 

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24 Hours-Day X 7 Days-Week

October 5, 2017

24 Hours-Day X 7 Days-Week

L V Nagarajan

Introduction:

In one of my earlier blogs (titled Tamil/Indian Solar Calendar) I have discussed the periods of a day, a month and a year along with evolution of different calendars based on the astral movements of Earth, Moon, Sun and the Stars. I have only briefly discussed about a more convenient period of a week of 7-days. But the evolution of a ‘24-hours Day’ and a ‘7-days Week’ is also quite intriguing and interesting. I should thank my cousins Giri and Vasu, for inspiring me into this research.

History:

European and other Western scientific historians always attribute all ancient scientific developments initially to Greece, then to Egypt and Alexandria and then to Babylon. Generally they do not go beyond Babylon, because they know it will lead them to Hindu/India. In the case of establishment and evolution of Time/Day system, the researchers went one step further down to south-east of Babylon, up to a region known as Chaldea. It is now the general acceptance, that 24-Hours-Day and 7-Days-Week was established and evolved in Chaldea, in 2nd Century BC, the area becoming a part of Babylon in later periods. It is evident, the researchers did not see beyond Chaldea towards further south east, i.e. India.

Chaldea:

Let see briefly the history of Chaldea. Chaldea (/kælˈdiːə/) or Chaldaea (ref -1) was a Semitic-speaking nation which existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia. It was located in the marshy land of the far south eastern corner of Mesopotamia. Ur Kaśdim (ref -1) commonly translated as Ur of the Chaldees, is a city mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the birthplace of the Israelite and Ismaelite  patriarch  Abraham. Chaldea is pronounced locally as ‘Kauldee’, which some scholars of Indology (ref -2) say has evolved from ‘Kauldev’ which is a sect of Kashmiri Brahmins.  “Chaldean, more correctly Kaul-Deva (Holy Kauls), was not the name of a specific ethnicity but the title of an ancient Hindu Brahmanical priestly caste, which lived in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Indian state of Kashmir”. Chaldea region consists of people who have migrated from east through the regions of Afghanistan. Abraham’s father Terah was living in a place called Ur (yes, a town, in many languages in India). He was apparently of Hindu origin and hence he named his son Brahm, the supreme soul. It later evolved as Abraham. (ref -3)

The Chaldean religion is the outcome of three great religions, the Indian, the Mazdean, and the Egyptian, and bears direct relationship to all of these. To place it still clearer, the Babylonian system recognized  the first ONE (Ad), who is never named but only acknowledged in thought, just as the Hindu Swayambhuva (Or Tamil’s Adi Bhagawan – LVN).The Babylonian civilization was neither born nor developed in that country. It was imported from India, and the importers were Brahmanical Hindus. Science has discovered enough to inform us that Sanskrit originals of Nepal, were translated by Buddhist missionaries into nearly every Asiatic tongue. Likewise Pali manuscripts were translated in Siamese, and carried to Burma and Siam; it is easy therefore to account for the same religious myths circulating in so many countries. (ref-4).

Abraham, son of Terah, lived in Chaldea during 1900BC. The period of Biblical Abraham is also around 1900 BC (ref – 5). Abraham is considered to be the father of Jewish race and religion. Later on other Abrahamic religions like Christianity and Islam also followed.

“Bus was Abraham Real? Good Question. (ref-6) Historians today are divided on whether the tales about Abraham are mythology. The problem is lack of archaeological records. – – – – In the secular view, however, Judaism has to begin somewhere. Someone had to believe god had spoken to him. Why not call that person, Abraham?” According to the above research, even the area known as Chaldea is far south-east of the city of Babylon. The town Abraham lived, Ur, is on southern part of this area. Later on the whole area came to be called as Babylon.

With such a history of Chaldea, it is rather obvious we have to look elsewhere for the origin of 24×7 day/week system.

24 Hours-Day:

Initially, ancient men divided the day only into day and night. The first ever division of a day into smaller units are seen in ancient Hindu scriptures of 4000 BC. Herein there are mentions of a day being divided into Ghatikas (Nazhikai in Tamil). Sunrise to sunset was divided into 30 ghatikas and similarly sunset to sunrise was also divided into 30 ghatikas. It did not take them long to find that these periods are neither same nor consistent. They then standardised the time measure of a ghatika by a standard pot with a hole at the bottom. The time taken for this pot full of water to empty through the hole was standardized as a Ghatika and a gong was sounded to indicate this passage of time. It was calibrated in such a way that 60 Ghatikas was the time between two successive sunrises. Obviously in those days, Sun rise was considered as the start of the day. When ancient Hindus observed other heavenly objects also through their naked eye, especially the brighter planets like Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Mars and Saturn, they believed that along with Sun and Moon even these visible planets affect the life on earth and that belief lead to a new ‘science’, Jyothish, now known as astrology. Earliest Hindu scripture available on Jyothish is Brihat Parasara Hora Sastra (ref -7). It is a compilation of Indian astrology existing at the time. In this text, Sage Parasara first describes how to record one’s time of birth, or lagna. He describes several lagnas- House Lagna (or Bhava), Hora lagna, Ghatika Lagna. “After noting down the time of birth after sunrise in Ghatikas and fractions of a Ghatika (known as Vighatika or Vinadi), it is divided by 5 to get House Ghatika or (Bhava). Hora lagna is obtained by dividing the time of birth in ghatikas, further by 2. For ghatika lagna only Ghatikas and Vighatikas are considered”, (i.e.) Bhava = Ghatikas/5 and Hora = Bhava/2.  Since 60 ghatikas make a day, which clearly amounts to 24 horas. This may perhaps be the start of 24-Hour day. How this Hora became Hour is another story.

“Parasara was the father of Sage Vyasa of Mahabharata. According to Varahamihira, Yuthishtra, the Pandava King of Mahabharata lived 2526 years ahead of Saka Era, which means 2448 BC. This will place Parasara’s time to be at least 2600BC” (Ref-8).

‘Hora’ is a word used for time/hour in many languages, especially in the regions around Egypt. Most accepted theory is that the word ‘Hora’ is of Jewish origin, historically derived from early Chaldean civilisation.  As we had discussed earlier, Abraham’s father Terah named his son Brahm, the supreme soul. It later evolved as Abraham. So Abraham was a follower of the Vedic religion, which at that time was spread all over the world and was not confined to India alone, as it later came to be. Abraham, father of Jewish and Ismaelite religions, must have learnt about Ghatika, Hora and Yama (Jama) time periods from his father or from their traditional Hindu holy texts.

With all the above studies, it is safe to assume that Abraham, credited with the idea of 24-Hours-Day was actually aware of definition of Ghatika, Hora and Yama (Or Jama, 3-Hours)) as divisions of time periods in the ancient Hindu way of life in which he also once belonged to. Even today we call the modern clocks as Ghadi in Hindi and Ghatikaram in Tamil. Please refer to   http://sowingseedsofthought.blogspot.in/2011/06/was-indian-time-keeping-technique.html for an interesting account of how the time was kept throughout the day in ancient India. Abraham was not perhaps interested in Indian astrology and hence he was interested to take up only Hour (or Hora), Minutes and Seconds as units of time. Since India was already using Hora as a unit of time it was fairly easy and acceptable for modern India to adapt to the international time standard of HH:MM:SS, with 24-hour days. But for religious and cultural purposes even now we use Ghatikas and Vighatikas (or Nazhikai and Vinadi in Tamil). We also use Shuba Horas for finding auspicious periods. Other time periods used till today, are the Yama (or Jama for temple rituals) and Muhurtha for holy rites like marriages.

7 Days-Week

Now let us consider the time period of a WEEK. Many Egyptian, European and Abrahamic cultures had time periods of a week which were neither consistent nor regular. They started by coinciding them with the phases of the moon. The 28/29 day cycle of moon was divided into 4 parts to make a week, but needing constant adjustment with intermittent 8-day weeks. There were cultures which had even working weeks of 8/10 days. Here again the Chaldean Hindus came to the rescue.

At some point of time in ancient astral history of India, Hindus started attributing the influence of the 7 heavenly objects (Sun, Moon and the 5 visible planets) to every hour (or Hora) of the day, in addition to every day, to every luni/solar month and to every planetary year. They found the planet Saturn to be the slowest around the sun, and the Moon to be the fastest around the sun, relative to Earth. Saturn’s average orbital velocity was observed as 0.33 times the orbital velocity of earth. As seen from the earth Sun takes 365 days to go around the Earth whereas Moon, following a similar path in the ecliptic, just takes 29 days to go around the earth. Hence its speed is the fastest at 365/29=12.59 relative to Earth. The table below gives the speeds of other planets relative to Earth.

No.

Moon/ Planet

Orbital  Speed (kM/s)

Speed relative to Earth

1

Moon

365 days / 29 days

12.59

2

Mercury 47.87

47.87/29.78

1.61

3

Venus 35.02

35.02/29.78

1.18

4

Earth/Sun 29.78

29.78/29.78

1.00

5

Mars 24.08

24.08/29.78

0.81

6

Jupiter 13.07

13.07/29.78

0.44

7

Saturn 9.69

9.69/29.78

0.33

I have made two significant changes in the above table. Moon has been included as the fastest heavenly object. Earth will be replaced by Sun, as relative to Earth, Sun is rotating the earth. The ancient Hindus believed that slower planets had larger influence on the lives on Earth even on daily and hourly basis. As said earlier, at some point of time in ancient history, Hindus started to believe in a 7-hour cycle of influence by all the seven Grahas as above, starting with Saturn and then going through all the Grahas from Jupiter to Moon, each period of influence lasting for one hour, beginning from sunrise. The cycle looks as below:

The above cycle starts from Sunrise of Day-0 and continues. By Hindu astrology each day is defined by the first Hora of the day (i.e. the first hour after sun rise) and hence named the days after the graha which rules the first hour of the day after sunrise. The days were called ‘vaaraas’ in Sanskrit and hence we had Ravi Vara, Soma Vara, Mangal Vara, Buddh Vara, Guru Vara, Shukra Vara, and Sani Vara (which directly translate into Sun-Day, Mon-Day etc). The cycle naturally repeated on and on, and ancient Hindus landed on a 7-day weekly cycle more by default than by design. A ‘week’ was never used as an explicit time period in ancient cultural history of India.

Abraham of Chaldea might have struggled hard to make the other cultures of the world to accept the week days named after planets. Many western communities accepted the 7-day week some time during 4th Century AD, but used numbers 1 to 7 to represent week days. When they eventually did accept Sunday to Saturday nomenclature, for centuries, they could not figure out why the days/planets were ordered specifically this way.  Perhaps westerners were never interested to know or to acknowledge, the Indian contribution behind this. As recorded in (ref – 9): “No one is certain as to how the idea of planetary hours came into being.  The only thing that is certain is that it is responsible for the order of the days of the week and therefore predates the Bible and the Genesis story for the creation. While the planetary hour’s true origin is something of a mystery, ancient astrologers used them to find the most auspicious time to start something important.  It was also used in horary astrology to see what influences were predominant for a given question. At some point in the distant past, by what philosophical reasoning is unknown, a sunrise or sunset defined the first planetary hour in history.  It has run on uninterrupted in this manner (as far as I know) longer than recorded history.” That nails the truth.

Twist In the Tail (or Tale)

I had an intriguing question. When did this Planetary-Hora cycle started, (i.e.) which and when was actually the day-0, mentioned in the above table? The first identifiable year for which a date is cited complete with day of the week is 6th Feb 0060 AD, as per the then existing Julian calendar. Found it very funny to note that this occurs in ‘Pompeiian graffito’. Pompei is a city in ancient Roman Empire that was immersed in ash from a volcano, Mount Vesuvius, in 0076 AD. It was dug up again only in 18th Century. They found thousands of graffiti in the walls and floorings of the ancient houses, many of them erotic. (You may google on this if interested). This particular graffiti mentions as below – “eighth day before the ides (middle) of February, day of the Sun”. Hence we know now 6th Feb 0060 was a Sunday. Or is it? As per the present system it is a Wednesday. We conclude two things from this:

  1. Romans started following 7-day week with planetary names in 0060 AD or earlier
  2. Romans were following Sunset as the start of the day. Day-4 in the planetary table given above is Sunday as per Sunset Hora and Wednesday as per Sunrise Hora.

Julian calendar used all over from 45 BC up to 16th century AD, which erred by 11 minutes, 14 Seconds in a tropical year. England accepted the new revised Gregorian calendar only in 1751 AD, 150 years after it was proposed, and it had to advance their calendar by 14 days to correct the accumulated error. Since it was exactly two weeks, the days of the week did not get affected. Luckily somewhere between 60AD and 1751AD world adopted Midnight as the start of the day, (00.00.00 Hrs after 23.59.59 Hrs) and start of the working week as Monday.

Conclusion:

I enjoyed this journey back in ‘TIME’ literally. Still it is a mystery, when and where did this idea of Planetary Hours originate. I could not find any reference to its origin. But one culture which is still using these ‘Horas’, to find auspicious and inauspicious times for various spheres of activities, are the Tamils. Readers may comment on this aspect, if they find any information.

References:

  1. Wikipedia
  2. http://brahminkhalifa.blogspot.in/2011/11/who-is-abrahm-ibrahm-brahma-and.html
  3. https://ocoy.org/original-christianity/the-aquarian-gospel/from-india-to-chaldea/)
  4. http://www.wisdomworld.org/additional/ListOfCollatedArticles/TheChaldeanLegend.html by H. P. BLAVATSKY )
  5. Comparative Religion For Dummies by William P. Lazarus, Mark Sullivan
  6. http://www.hermetics.org/Abraham2.htmlWho Was Abraham?  by Gene D. Matlock, B.A., M.A. 
  7. Ways of the natives – Parasara’s Hora Sastra – pp25, and from: http://www.barbarapijan.com/bpa/Amsha/lagna_vishesika_hora_bhava_ghati.htm
  8. Sūryasiddhānta: An Astro-linguistic Study By Sudhi Kant Bharadwaj
  9. http://www.astrology-x-files.com/help-timaeus/planet-hour.html
  10. https://io9.gizmodo.com/5825459/the-roman-city-of-pompeii-pictures-of-a-lost-world-frozen-in-time